WORK IN PROGRESS (*Student or postdoctoral mentee)

Gemayel, G.* and C. Gray. (2023). Climate change and women’s nutritional status in Egypt and Jordan. Paper presentation for the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America. New Orleans, April 13-15. [Link]

Gray, C., and B. Thiede. (2023). Temperature anomalies harm and displace reproductive-age women across the Global South. doi:10.31235/

Thiede, B., and C. Gray. (2023). Child malnutrition and mortality in a changing climate. Paper presentation for the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America. New Orleans, April 13-15. [Link]

Ghebremicael, S.*, C. Gray, and H. Randell. (2022). Climate change and food security in Ethiopia. Poster presentation for the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America. Atlanta GA, April 6-9. [Link]

Jackson, J., B. Thiede, and C. Gray. (2022). Rainfall, temperature and life outcomes in the United States, 1900–1940. Paper presentation for the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America. Atlanta GA, April 6-9. [Link]

Thiede, B., A. Robinson, and C. Gray. (2022). Climatic variability and internal migration in Asia: Evidence from integrated census and survey microdata. doi:10.31235/


Hunter, L., C. Gray and J. Véron (eds.). (2022). The International Handbook of Population and Environment. Springer. DOI 10.1007/978-3-030-76433-3. [Link]

JOURNAL ARTICLES (*Student or postdoctoral mentee)

Gray, C. and M. Call*. (2023). Heat and drought reduce subnational population growth in the global tropics. Population and Environment 45: 6. [Link] [Open access]

Mueller, V., C. Bernal, C. Gray, and K. Grepin. (2023). The gendered consequences of COVID-19 for internal migration. Population Research and Policy Review 42:60. [Open Access]

Rojas, A.*, C. Gray and C. West. (2023). Measuring the environmental context of child growth in Burkina Faso. Population and Environment 45: 3. [Link] [Open access]

Kandikuppa, S.* and C. Gray. (2022). Climate change and household debt in rural India. Climatic Change 173: 20. [Link] [Open access] [Pubmed]

Randell, H., C. Gray, and E. Shayo. (2022). Climatic conditions and household food security: Evidence from Tanzania. Food Policy 112: 102362. [Link] [Open access]

Thiede, B., H. Randell, and C. Gray. (2022). The childhood origins of climate-induced mobility and immobility. Population and Development Review 48(3): 767-793. [Link] [Open access] [Preprint] [IPUMS International Award for Published Research.]

McMahon, K.*, and C. Gray. (2021). Climate change, social vulnerability and child nutrition in South Asia. Global Environmental Change 71: 102414. [Link] [Open access] [IPUMS Global Health Award for Best Student Paper]

Nicholas, K.*, L. Campbell*, E. Paul*, G. Skeltis*, W. Wang*, and C. Gray. (2021). Climate anomalies and childhood growth in Peru. Population and Environment 43: 39–60. [Link] [Open access]

Call, M.*, and C. Gray. (2020). Climate anomalies, land degradation and rural out-migration in Uganda. Population and Environment 41: 507–528. [Link] [Open access] [Pubmed]

Gray, C., D. Hopping*, and V. Mueller. (2020). The changing climate-migration relationship in China, 1989-2011. Climatic Change 160:103-122. [Link] [Open access] [Pubmed]

Gray, C., and R. Bilsborrow. (2020). Stability and change within indigenous land use in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Global Environmental Change 63: 102116. [Link] [Open access]

Mueller, V., C. Gray, S. Handa and D. Seidenfeld. (2020). Do social protection programs foster short-term and long-term migration adaptation strategies? Environment and Development Economics 25: 135-158. [Link] [Open access]

Mueller, V., C. Gray, and D. Hopping*. (2020). Climate-induced migration and unemployment in middle-income Africa. Global Environmental Change 65: 102183. [Link] [Open access] [IPUMS International Award for Published Research.]

Mueller, V., G. Sheriff, X. Dou and C. Gray. (2020). Temporary migration and climate variation in Eastern Africa. World Development, 104704. [Open access] [Pubmed]

Randell, H., C. Gray, and K. Grace. (2020). Stunted from the start: Early life weather conditions and child undernutrition in Ethiopia. Social Science and Medicine, 113234. [Link] [Open access]

Salinas Castro*, V., R. Bilsborrow and C. Gray. (2020). Cambios socioeconómicos en el siglo XXI en poblaciones indígenas Amazónicas: Retos actuales. Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos 35(1): 83-116. [Open access]

Thiede, B., and C. Gray. (2020). Characterizing the indigenous forest peoples of Latin America: Results from census data. World Development, 104685. [Link] [Open access]

Thiede, B., and C. Gray. (2020). Climate exposures and child undernutrition: Evidence from Indonesia. Social Science and Medicine 265: 113298. [Link] [Open access]

Williams, N., and C. Gray. (2020). Spatial and temporal dimensions of weather shocks and migration in Nepal. Population and Environment 41: 286–305. [Link] [Open access]

Call, M.*, C. Gray, and P. Jagger. (2019). Smallholder responses to climate anomalies in rural Uganda. World Development 115: 132–144. [Link] [Open access]

Randell, H.*, and C. Gray. (2019). Climate change and educational attainment in the global tropics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116 (18): 8840-8845 [Open access] [Coverage by Anthropocene Magazine and New Security Beat]

Sellers, S.*, and C. Gray. (2019). Climate shocks constrain human fertility in Indonesia. World Development 117: 357-369. [Link] [Open access]

Mueller, V., and C. Gray. (2018). Heat and adult health in China. Population and Environment 40(1): 21–46. [Link] [Open access]

Bevis, L.*, J. Conrad, C. Barrett, and C. Gray. (2017). State-conditioned soil investment in rural Uganda. Research in Economics 71(2): 254–281 [Link] [Open access preprint]

Call, M.*, C. Gray, M. Emch and M. Ali. (2017). Disruption, not displacement: Environmental variability and temporary migration in Bangladesh. Global Environmental Change 46: 157–165. [Link] [Open access]

Call, M.*^, T. Mayer*^, S. Sellers*^, D. Ebanks*^, M, Bertalan*^, E. Nebie*^, and C. Gray. (2017). Socio-environmental drivers of forest change in rural Uganda. Land Use Policy 62: 49–58. ^Authors contributed equally to this research. [Link] [Open access preprint] [Coverage by UNC CEE]

Davis, J.*, S. Sellers*, C. Gray, and R. Bilsborrow. (2017). Indigenous migration dynamics in the Ecuadorian Amazon: A longitudinal and hierarchical analysis. Journal of Development Studies 53(11): 1849-1864. [Link] [Open access]

Jennings, J., and C. Gray. (2017). Climate and marriage in the Netherlands, 1871-1937. Population and Environment 38:242–260. [Link] [Open access]

Thiede, B., and C. Gray. (2017). Heterogeneous climate effects on human migration in Indonesia. Population and Environment 39(2): 147-172 [Corrected version] [Open access]

Bozigar, M.*, C. Gray, and R. Bilsborrow. (2016). Oil extraction and indigenous livelihoods in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon. World Development 78: 125–135. [Link] [Open access]

Gray, C., and E. Wise. (2016). Country-specific effects of climate variability on human migration. Climatic Change 135(3): 555-568 [Link] [Open access] [Coverage by Climate Outreach]

Randell, H.*, and C. Gray. (2016). Climate variability and educational attainment: Evidence from rural Ethiopia. Global Environmental Change 41: 111–123. [Link] [Open access] [Coverage by National Geographic and Nature Climate Change]

Thiede, B., C. Gray, and V. Mueller. (2016). Climate variability and inter-provincial migration in South America, 1970-2011. Global Environmental Change 41: 228–240. [Link] [Open access] [Coverage by IFPRI and New Security Beat]

Davis, J.*, R Bilsborrow, and C. Gray. (2015). Delayed fertility transition among indigenous women: A case study in the Ecuadorian Amazon. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 41(1):1–10. [Open access] [En español]

Gray, C., M. Bozigar*, and R. Bilsborrow. (2015). Declining use of wild resources by indigenous peoples of the Ecuadorian Amazon. Biological Conservation 182: 270–277. [Link] [Open access]

Jennings, J., and C. Gray. (2015). Climate variability and human migration in the Netherlands, 1865-1937. Population and Environment 36(3): 255-278. [Link] [Open access preprint]

Baird, T.*, and C. Gray. (2014). Livelihood diversification and shifting social networks of exchange: A social network transition? World Development 60: 14–30.  [Link] [Open access]

Fussell, E., L. Hunter., and C. Gray. (2014). Measuring the environmental dimensions of human migration: The demographer’s toolkit. Global Environmental Change 28: 182–191. [Link] [Open access]

Gray, C., and R. Bilsborrow. (2014). Consequences of out-migration for land use in rural Ecuador. Land Use Policy 36: 182–191. [Link] [Open access]

Gray, C., E. Frankenberg, T. Gillepsie, C. Sumantri and D. Thomas. (2014). Studying displacement after a disaster using large scale survey methods: Sumatra after the 2004 tsunami. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 104(3): 594-612. [Link] [Open access] [Coverage by Development Impact]

Mueller, V., C. Gray, and K. Kosec . (2014). Heat stress increases long-term human migration in rural Pakistan. Nature Climate Change 4(3): 182-185 . [Link] [Open access] [Coverage by Simple ClimateScientific AmericanSciLogsSmithsonian Magazine and Wilson Quarterly]

Gray, C. and R. Bilsborrow. (2013). Environmental influences on human migration in rural Ecuador. Demography 50(4): 1217-1241. [Link] [Open access]

Gray, C., and V. Mueller. (2012). Natural disasters and population mobility in Bangladesh. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(16): 6000-6005. [Open Access] [Commentary in Nature Climate Change]

Gray, C., and V. Mueller. (2012). Drought and population mobility in rural Ethiopia. World Development 40(1): 134–145. [Link]  [Open access]

Gray, C. (2011). Soil quality and human migration in Kenya and Uganda. Global Environmental Change 21: 421–430. [Link] [Open access]

Gray, C. (2010). Gender, natural capital and migration in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. Environment and Planning A 42(3): 678-696. [Link]

Lu, F., C. Gray, R. Bilsborrow, C. Mena, J. Bremner, A. Barbieri, C. Erlien, and S. Walsh. (2010). Contrasting colonist and indigenous impacts on Amazonian forests. Conservation Biology 24(3): 881-885. [Link] [Open access]

Gray, C. (2009). Environment, land and rural out-migration in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. World Development 37(2): 457-468. [Link] [Open access preprint]

Gray, C. (2009). Rural out-migration and smallholder agriculture in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. Population and Environment 30(4): 193-217. [Link] [Open access preprint]

Gray, C., R. Bilsborrow, J. Bremner, and F. Lu. (2008). Indigenous land use in the Ecuadorian Amazon: A cross-cultural and multilevel analysis. Human Ecology 36(1): 97-109. [Link]

Rindfuss, R., B. Entwisle, S. Walsh, C. Mena, C. Erlien, and C. Gray. (2007). Frontier land use: Synthesis, challenges, and next steps. The Annals of the Association of American Geographers 97(4): 739-754. [Link]